JustCite Terminology

Here you will find definitions of the terminology used on JustCite.  Click on a term to see its definition.


Basic Terminology

Definitions of the basic terms used in discussing the JustCite service.

Consolidated Legislation
Meaning:

A means of providing legislation in full text. Consolidated legislation has all amendments in force integrated into the text, making it easy to see how the legislation has effect today.

Crosslink
Meaning:

A link between two documents on JustCite, such as a subsequent treatment or an amendment.

Data Feed
Meaning:

Information delivered into JustCite’s database automatically by a third party provider.

Editors
Meaning:

Justis staff who carry out the markup process.  All Editors have a good law degree and the majority are qualified to at least LPC/BPTC level and have practical legal experience.

Entity
Meaning:

Any document which has an entry on JustCite.

Full-text Link
Meaning:

A link between JustCite and an external full-text source.

Generic Login
Meaning:

A user who is not personally identifiable to JustCite. These users are presented with a greyed-out, prefilled username in the form [email protected] and a Continue button. Generic Login users do not have access to the My JustCite amendment trail.

Havers Profile
Meaning:

A barrister’s or chambers’ entry in Havers’ Companion to the Bar, as it appears on JustCite.

JRRE
Meaning:

The JustCite Reference Recognition Engine is Justis Publishing’s proprietary citation recognition technology. It is known as JRRE (“Jerry”) for short. See this page for more information.

Justis Juicer
Meaning:

The system that extracts citator information from titles carried in full text on JustCite’s sister service Justis, and pulls the resulting information into JustCite.

Legislation As Enacted
Meaning:

A means of providing legislation in full text. Legislation As Enacted is the text as it was on the day it received the Royal Assent.

Marked Up Date
Meaning:

The date from which the JustCite Editorial team have worked on an Editorial Data Source. Any information prior to the Marked Up Date will be either Reference Information only or from a Data Feed.

Markup
Meaning:

The editorial process whereby crosslinks are created between documents. More information can be found here.

Personal Login
Meaning:

A user who is personally identifiable by JustCite. This includes users who log in with a username and password combination, IP-recognised users who enter a username only, and academic users logging in via Athens or Shibboleth.

Point in Time Legislation
Meaning:

A means of providing legislation in full text. Point in Time Legislation enables the user to see the text of the legislation as it had effect at a certain point in the past.

Profile Card
Meaning:

A collection of information about a document, displayed on the results screen.

Reindexing
Meaning:

For performance reasons, JustCite maintains a high-speed index of the data it contains, and searches are run against that index rather than directly against the database.  Every 24 hours the index is rebuilt and materials added to or changed in the database since the last rebuild will appear in the new index.  This process is called reindexing.

Trail Item
Meaning:

A search, information page or full-text link listed in the My JustCite research trail.

UK Non-Devolved
Meaning:

National Jurisdiction category applied to legislation taking effect in and journal articles with content relevant to more than one UK jurisdiction.

View
Meaning:

A means of presenting the data on a document information page.  The default view is generally Overview & Citations.  Other views giving more detailed information on a particular area are available by following the links on the left hand side of the screen.


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Case Relationships

Definitions used by the editors in determining treatment types for crosslinks between cases.

Affirmed
Meaning:

Decision of lower court confirmed by appellate court

Applied
Meaning:

Previous case/dicta/judgment applied to circumstances before Justices in present case

Previous case/dicta/judgment applied to circumstances before Justices in present case
Approved
Meaning:

Previous case in inferior court approved as correct

Cited
Meaning:

Name and citation of case given

Considered
Meaning:

Case/dicta/judgment in previous case considered in judgment by Court in current case

Disapproved
Meaning:

Case/dicta/judgment held to be invalid/no longer recognised as good law/doubted

Distinguished
Meaning:

Previous case’s facts materially different to case at hand and therefore not applicable

Followed
Meaning:

Past case decided by similar or superior court accepted/taken as established point of law

Not Applied
Meaning:

Case/dicta/judgment not applied

Not Followed
Meaning:

Previous case decided by similar court not accepted

Overruled
Meaning:

Decision of previous case in inferior court held to be incorrect and no longer valid

Referred To
Meaning:

Court refers to specific case in which relevant issue considered/decided

Relied Upon
Meaning:

Decision of previous case used to explain/clarify fact in issue before court in present case

Reversed
Meaning:

Decision of lower court in current case reversed


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Crosslink Types

The types of link capable of subsisting between documents on JustCite.

Amended Items
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Legislation and EU Document Information Pages.  Lists those previous provisions amended by the instant provision.

Amending Items
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Legislation and EU Information Pages.  Lists subsequent provisions which amend the instant provision and, in the case of UK legislation, other subsequent related provisions.

Cases Considered
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Case Information Page.  Lists cases cited in judgment in the instant case.

Citing Cases
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Legislation Information Page.  Lists those cases which have something substantive to say about the interpretation or application of the instant legislative provision.  Corresponds to the Legislation Considered entry on the Case Information Page.

Earlier Proposals
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists the proposals and draft documents which became, or fed into the instant document.  This view can be thought of as listing a subset of the travaux preparatoires for the instant document.

ECJ Citing Cases
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists decisions of the European Courts citing the instant document, namely the Court of Justice, the General Court and the Civil Service Tribunal.

Future Proposals
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists COM-DOCs and other CELEX Sector 5 documents referring to the instant provision.

Implementing SIs
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Applicable only to Directives.  Lists Statutory Instruments giving effect to the instant Directive in UK law.

Legislation Considered
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Case Information Page.  Lists those legislative provisions about which the instant case has something substantive to say in terms of its interpretation or application.

Legislative Base
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists previous EU legislative provisions providing the legal basis for the instant provision; essentially, the “parent” legislation.

Legislative Citations
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists previous EU legislative provisions which are cited in the text of the instant document, but which are not amended by the instant document and which do not form part of the instant document’s Legislative Base.

Subsequent Cases
Meaning:

One of the views available on the Case Information Page.  Lists cases which cite the instant case in judgment.

Subsequent Legislation
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists subsequent provisions for which the instant provision forms part of the Legislative Base.

Subsequent Legislative Citations
Meaning:

One of the views available on the EU Document Information Page.  Lists subsequent provisions which do not amend the instant provision, and for which the instant provision does not form part of the Legislative Base, but which cite the instant provision for other reasons.


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Precedent Map

Terminology specific to the JustCite Precedent Map.

Case Network
Meaning:

Those cases which cite, and are cited by, the Focus comprise that Focus’s Case Network.

Connector
Meaning:

Denotes the relationship between the Focus and a Node or, when mousing over a Node, between that Node and other Nodes. Connectors are colour-coded according to the relationship type; green for positive, amber for neutral and red for negative.

Focus
Meaning:

The case whose Case Network is represented by the currently displayed Precedent Map. Cites, or is cited by, the Nodes.

Node
Meaning:

A case appearing on the Precedent Map, which cites, or is cited by, the Focus.

Perimeter
Meaning:

Nodes are arranged around the Focus in a chronological circle called the Perimeter. Nodes appearing between six and noon (i.e. on the left) represent previous cases, and Nodes appearing between noon and six (i.e. on the right) represent subsequent cases.

Precedent Map
Meaning:

A visual representation of the relationships between related cases which allows the user easily to follow a line of authority.


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