Boolean OperatorsJustCite supports all the usual Boolean operators including
OR operator is especially useful when searching by subject keyword as it enables you to broaden your search to encompass multiple synonyms or near-synonyms.
ANDoperator will always be implied unless:
- the terms are enclosed in double quotation marks, or;
NOToperators are specified explicitly instead.
corporation taxwill return the same results as
corporation AND tax, whereas
"corporation tax"will return only those results containing that precise phrase. For the avoidance of doubt, it should be said that JustCite’s behaviour in treating the
ANDas implied corresponds to that of Justis and Westlaw, but is the direct opposite of how Lexis Library behaves.
Proximity OperatorsJustCite supports the standard
w/xsyntax, as well as the long form
within x of. We have predefined the word
nearas a shorthand for
within 10 of. You can also specify a word sequence within the proximity range using the form
w/x after. Bear in mind that because JustCite is an index, proximity operators are not as important as they are on full-text resources, and the circumstances in which a proximity search will return results significantly different from a simple
ANDsearch are somewhat limited.
Wildcard OperatorsJustCite supports the following wildcard operators:
- Asterisk (*) – stem search
- Question Mark (?) – character substitution
- Tilde (~) – fuzzy/”near match” search
- Hyphen (-) – matches hyphenated and unhyphenated forms of the search term e.g.
life-boatwill match “life-boat”, “life boat” and “lifeboat”.
NOTE: If no results are returned on a literal search, a fuzzy search will be carried out automatically and the permutation with the most numerous results selected. Therefore, it is only necessary to use the fuzzy search operator explicitly when you want to match multiple variations within a single set of results.
Year Range OperatorsThere are two differing syntaxes for using year range operators, depending on whether you are using the general Search or the Advanced Search. In the general search, you must use the field restrictor
Year [ date search string ]. For example:
Year [before 1932]
Year [from 1995 to 2005]
Year [after 2001]
Year [ ]and simply enter the operators directly in the date search boxes. For example:
from 1995 to 2005
Nesting OperatorsJustCite supports the use of parentheses to “nest” your search terms and operators, thereby forcing JustCite to process them in a certain order. Consider the following search:
"Anton Piller" or search and order or injunctionJustCite will return results containing any of the following:
- The phrase
- The two terms
- The word
("Anton Piller" or search) and (order or injunction)This time JustCite will return results containing:
- Either the phrase
"Anton Piller"or the word
- Either the word
orderor the word